In 1918, Romania’s fate was closely linked to that of the Great Powers of the Entente. However, for Romania, the consequences were a lot harsher. Despite their 1916 alliance with the Entente, the Romanian authorities were forced to sign a separate peace treaty with the Central Powers in May 1918. Afterwards, they struggled to find a compromise between the aggressive policy of the temporary victors and the expectations of their initial Allies, and were finally able to re-enter military combat actions towards the end of the First World War. Romania’s “reversal of fortune” took place with the assistance and collaboration of its Entente Allies, more exactly, through the activity of the Diplomatic Missions of the Entente to Iași. In this alliance, a particular role was played by Italy, as a state that shared most of Romania’s relations with the Great Powers participating in the World War. Italy’s support for the establishment of the Romanian Legion, which consisted of former Romanian combatants in the Austro-Hungarian army, was a concrete and direct contribution to the fulfillment of Romania’s national objectives.
Keywords: World War I, Romania, Separate Peace Treaty, Italy, Central Powers, Entente, Romanian Legion in Italy.